# What is nanotechnology?

 What is nanotechnology?

### Definition of nano:

* Nano is a prefix (the part with which we start the word), derived from the Greek word "nanos" which means dwarf, and nanoscale is used to express one part of a billion of something;  For example, we say a nanometer, or a nanosecond, and this indicates a part of a billion parts of a meter, and a part of a billionth of a second.  And nanos can be written as numbers 9-10.

### Units of measurement in nano:

* The nanoscale is nothing but a prefix used to express a part of a billion parts of a unit of measure, and nanoscale is not limited to a specific unit without another unit, but it may be used as a prefix for any unit of measurement.  Nevertheless, this prefix usually appears in practice repeatedly in units of measurement of length, units of time measurement, units of measurement of mass, and very large units such as the unit of electrical charge which is the coulomb, and the unit of capacitance of electrical capacitance.

In what follows, we will mention some of the units that we frequently use nanoscale with.

* A nanosecond A nanosecond is a unit of time equivalent to one part of a billionth of a second, meaning that 1 nanosecond equals 10-9 seconds.  In order to clarify the short period of time known as nanoseconds, the speed of light can be used, which is approximately 300,000 kilometers per second, and this means that light travels a distance of three hundred thousand kilometers in one second (or the equivalent of three hundred million meters per second).  The following example will help us to position the nanoseconds short.

Example: What is the distance traveled by light in a time of nanoseconds?  Solution: To solve this question, it is necessary to use the law of calculating speed, which is: velocity = distance / time, and from it: distance = velocity x time and by substituting the speed of light in a vacuum in units of meters per second and time of nanoseconds per second unit in this law distance = (3  × 108) × (1 × 10-9), the distance = 0.3 meters. This means that the light travels a distance of 30 centimeters per nanosecond, even though its speed is very high, and this is evidence of the short time of the nanometer.

* Nanometer: The nanometer is a unit of length measurement, and it is considered part of the main unit of length measurement in the global system of units, which is the meter, and a nanometer equals 1 x 10-9 meters, and nanotechnology is based on very small devices whose dimensions are measured in nanometers.  To clarify what is a nanometer more and give it a more palpable impression, it is possible to compare the nanometer with the diameter of a human hair, or the length of a microscopic particle (such as viruses, bacteria, or red blood cells).  A human hair is about 75 microns in diameter (micron or micrometer).

* It is a unit of length also and it is equal to one part of a million parts of a meter, meaning that 1 micron = 6-10 meters, which is equivalent to 75,000 nanometers (seventy-five thousand nanometers), and from the foregoing it is clear that the nanometer is the unit for measuring lengths and distances small and very short  very.  As another example to illustrate how small a nanometer is, it is known that the length of the Ebola virus (in English: Ebola) is 1,500 nanometers, while its width is 50 nanometers. [5] Transfer task conversion between nanometer and meter can be converted from nanometer to meter by multiplying the nanometers we have by  9-10.  While converting from meters to nanometers by multiplying the meters we have by 109.

* Example (1): If you know that the wavelength of the yellow color is 580 nanometers, what is its wavelength in meters?  Solution: To solve this problem, we must convert from nanometers to meters, and this is done as follows: 1 nanometer ← 1 x 10-9 meters 580 nanometers ← x meters by cross multiplication x = 580 x 10-9 meters Example (2): If a student wants  Knowing his length in nanometers, his length must be converted from one meter to nanometer. If the height of this student is 1.5 meters, how tall is he in nanometers?  Solution: This example can be solved in the same way as in the previous example, but taking into account that the unknown this time is the length in nanometers and not the length in meters.

* Where: 1 nm ← 1 x 10-9 m x nm ← 1.5 m by cross multiplying x x 10-9 = 1.5, then x = 1.5 ÷ 10-9 x = 1.5 x 109 nm.  This example can also be solved by multiplying our meters directly by 109, and we get the same answer.

### Converting between nanoseconds and seconds:

* It is important to know the conversion method between nanoseconds and seconds;  This is because the nanosecond unit is very very small, and it is difficult to give an impression of it without converting it into a perceptible unit of time in our daily life.  Also, it is important to solve physical and engineering problems in units of seconds instead of nanoseconds (as we saw in Example # 3).  1 nanosecond = 1 x 10-9 seconds, and from this equality we can say that, to convert from nanoseconds to second, it is necessary to divide by 1 x 109, while to convert from second to nanoseconds, this is done by multiplying by 1 x 109.

Example (4): How many nanoseconds are there per day?  (This example also helps to give an impression of being short of a nanosecond.)  Solution: To solve this question, it is necessary to know the number of seconds present in one day, and then convert these seconds to nanoseconds through the conversion method that we talked about earlier.  We can convert from day to second by multiplying the number of days we have by (24 x 60 x 60).  1 day = 1 x 24 x 60 x 60 = 86400 seconds, meaning that there are 86400 seconds in one day.  Now we need to convert these seconds to nanoseconds, and we will do that by multiplying by 1 x 109, so: time in nanoseconds = time in seconds x 1 x 109 time in nanoseconds = 86400 x 1 x 109 = 86400 x 109 nanoseconds.

### Nanotechnology (English: Nanotechnology)

* It is the science that studies the applications of very small things, whose dimensions range from 1 to 100 nanometers, and which can be used in a wide variety of fields of science and engineering.  The idea of ​​nanotechnology began with the physicist Richard Feynman in 1959, and this science developed with the development of our ability to study atoms and molecules.

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