القائمة الرئيسية


 The wisdom behind the prohibition of usury,

The wisdom behind the prohibition of usury,

Definition of usury:

 * Linguistically and a terminology that defines usury in language and legal terminology as follows: Usury in language: It is the increase, and this meaning has been mentioned in the Holy Qur’an in several places, including: God Almighty says:  ...);  That is, the earth is raised and raised, and thus its increase is achieved, and he also said: (To be a nation is greater than a nation), and the meaning of the earth is greater in the verse: more number.  Usury in Shari'ah: paying an increase in one of the two allowances if they are of the same type, or delaying the exchange of one of them.

 The ruling on usury in Islam:

 * The prohibition of usury was mentioned in the Noble Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet, just as the scholars and the righteous predecessors have agreed that it is forbidden, and the following is a statement of the evidence for the prohibition: The prohibition in the Qur’an: The prohibition of usury is mentioned in several Qur’anic verses, and in the details of these topics:  the Koran, and between that it is contrary to common sense, and in return the zakat applauded, said the Almighty: (and what you come from the Lord of the people's money than in no more than God and what you come from Zakat you want the face of God, they are Alamadafon).  Between God Almighty saying: (O ye who believe, do not consume usury, doubled and fear Allah, that ye may prosper * And fear the fire prepared for disbelievers * Allah and obey the messenger, that ye may obtain mercy)

 * The prohibition of usury categorically, and explain its ugliness, and the implications for it.  Injustice, eating the rights of others, and other effects.  God said the Almighty: (who devour usury will not only as the person beaten by the devil of touch that they said but selling such as usury, and Allah has permitted trading and forbidden usury, it came to him an admonition from his Lord and ended Ribaa, and ordered him to God, and returned those, the Fire are  There are immortals), God has indicated that selling is totally and unquestionably different from usury, as any increase in capital is forbidden.  Either a few or a lot.  Prohibition in the Sunnah: The texts of the correct Prophet’s Sunnah emphasized the prohibition of usury in clear terms, and some hadiths clarified the usury stipulated in the prohibition in the Holy Qur’an, and some hadiths also prohibited other types of usury that were not mentioned in the Qur’an.

 * The Prophet, may God bless him and grant him peace, emphasized the prohibition of usury.  And he said in the sermon of the farewell pilgrimage: (No, and that all the Lord in Jahiliyyah is subject, for you your capitals do not wrong, nor do you wrong other than the Lord of Al-Abbas Ibn Abd Al-Muttalib, for it is subject to all of it).  The Prophet - may blessings and peace be upon him - emphasized the prohibition of usury of an-Nasee'ah.  He said: (Not only the usury is in the woman). What is meant by the interest of the women is the increase in one of the two returns in exchange for delaying payment.  The Prophet’s Sunnah prohibited interest in sales.  The Prophet said -alih prayers and Salam: (Gold for gold, silver for silver, wheat wheat, barley for barley, dates for dates, salt for salt, like for like, alike, hand in hand, if these types are different, Fbaawa how you will, if hand in hand  ),

 * The Messenger - upon him be blessings and peace - indicated a type of usury that occurs in the sale of certain items, and other items being measured against them.  Similarity is required if the sex is united, for example gold is sold for gold in the same amount, and for exchange in the contract council, and similarity is not required if the two types differ, but rather exchange.  The prohibition in consensus: The righteous predecessors and the scholars after them were unanimously agreed that usury of all kinds is forbidden.  The wisdom behind the prohibition of usury, for a Muslim to obey the command of God.  Whether or not he knows the wisdom of the matter, God Almighty said:

 * Nevertheless, the scholars have worked diligently to explain the wisdom behind the prohibition of usury, and it is mentioned from that ruling: limiting extravagance and exaggerated luxury, and avoiding excessive consumption of items on which people's lives depend.  Excessive matters are reprehensible.  Avoid people cheating on each other, and make sure to save money from loss or loss.  Antitrust;  As the prevalence of bartering in certain varieties leads to restricting the exchange in them.  Encouraging people to use money as a medium of exchange. If usury results in every financial transaction, then it leads to the absence of financial transactions.  ).

 * Preventing what leads to the commission of one type of usury and falling into another type.  For example, an increase in one of the two substitutions, together with swapping in the contract board, may lead to a large increase in exchange for delaying the exchange.  That is, riba al-Fadl may lead to riba al-Nasee'ah.  That is why any method that leads to falling into forbidden is forbidden.  Prevent injustice;  As in usury the taking of money without compensation, and consuming people's money unlawfully, just as the one who takes interest receives money without effort or effort, but rather gets it in return for the fatigue of the other, and without his money being subjected to profit or loss.

 * Preventing abstinence from working, striving, and gaining permissible benefits, such as trade, agriculture, industry, and other funds, which would achieve the purpose of building the land, which is not what dealing with usury leads to.  Encouraging righteousness and goodness known among people;  Usury leads to the severing of compassion, lack of cooperation, or consolation between them.

 Types of usury and their rulings:

 * Riba al-Fadl is defined as usury al-Fadl as: the increase that takes place in one of the two types that have been exchanged between them, provided that they are of the same sex, and it is ruled against the prohibition in the texts of several hadiths, of which it is mentioned: What Imam Muslim provided in his Sahih on the authority of the companion Abi Saeed Al-Khudri  be pleased with him, said: (I saw my eyes, and I heard my ears the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him say, then, do not gold-plated, not Etbiawa paper to paper, but like for like, and healed some of it on some, and Etbiawa something absent from him Bnadz, but hand in hand).

 * Narrated by Bukhari in his Saheeh: (that the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him, he sent the brother of the sons Uday al-Ansari, and was used by the Khyber, introduced pass on epimere, he said to him the Messenger of Allah peace be upon him: eat pass Khyber So? He said: No, O God,  Messenger of God, we will buy saa’a by saa'i from the crowd, so the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, said: Do not do, but spread something like that, or sell something like this, or sell something like that.  What the Sheikh of Islam Ibn Taymiyyah - may God have mercy on him - said: “The majority of the Companions, the Taabi'een, and the four imams have agreed that gold, silver, wheat, barley, dates, and raisins are not sold except for an example, for more than a parable consumes money in vain.  .

 * Riba al-Nasee'ah means the interest of a-Nasee’ah, or the interest of the Jahiliyyah: the increase in the capital in exchange for the increase at the time of payment, and it becomes clear from this that it includes usury of credit, and the interest of al-naseeh, and was allocated to the woman  Because the purpose and intent of the increase is to postpone payment, the example of which is to pay money to another person by specifying a specific period, then increase the amount in exchange for delaying payment beyond the agreed period, and it has been proven that riba al-Nasee’ah is prohibited in the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and consensus, and among this evidence is what Imam Al-Bukhari made in  It was authenticated on the authority of Abu Sa`id al-Khudri that the Prophet - upon him be blessings and peace - said: “Dinar is in debt, and their peril is in dirhams.  He said: All that I do not say, and you know the Messenger of God, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, from me, but a name told me: The Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, said: There is no god but in the people.

 * It should be noted that it is ruled that the increase is prohibited when two conditions are met, which are explained as follows: The first: stipulating the increase in the contract, and the jurists have agreed on that.  The second: that the increase in one of the two allowances is an increase in custom, or usually.  Any increase or benefit accruing to the owner of the money is forbidden, and forbidden according to Sharia if it is due to the loan.  Interest-based categories The texts prohibiting usury are mentioned in six categories, which are: gold, silver, wheat, barley, dates, and salt.

 * Evidence for this is what Ubadah ibn Al-Samit - may God be pleased with him - narrated on the authority of the Prophet - may God bless him and grant him peace - who said: (Gold is gold, silver is silver, wheat with milk, barley with barley, and dates with barley, and dates with barley, roasted dates, and dates.  By hand, if these types differ, then sell them as you wish, if it is hand in hand). The reason for usury is in the previous six categories, and other types that were not mentioned in the hadith are represented by matters that the scholars differed in their definition, and their disagreement is explained in the following:

 * Hanafi and Hanbali: they said that the reason for usury is great or weight with the union of sex.  Whether the varieties of foodstuffs, or from others, and it is permissible for the Hanafi to differentiate between the two alternatives without delaying the exchange if the sex is united only, or the uniformity of weight and weight is achieved without the union of sex, and they said that gold and silver are usury in the combination of symmetry of destiny and the union of sex together  .  The Maliki: They said that the reason for usury is in gold and precious silver, while the reason for the other types is differentiated according to the type of interest.  It represents sustenance and savings if the usury is the interest of the merit, and sustenance is what the structure does, and the savings: what is preserved for a long time without spoiling.

 * As for the interest of a nasee'ah, the reason is forfeeding.  That is, the product is of human food, without the requirement to save.  Shafi'i scholars: They said that the reason for gold and silver is the value, and the reason in other types is represented by the effect of usury in contracts. The scholars differed in the ruling on the sale that is mixed with usury, and they went on their disagreement to two sayings, their explanation as follows: The first opinion: The majority of scholars said of the Shafi’is  The Maliki and Hanbali contract invalidated the contract in which interest was signed, and accordingly, it is revoked and is not permissible in any way.  As usury is one of the things that are forbidden in Sharia, and that is forbidden, and the prohibition in Sharia indicates that it is forbidden.

 * They quoted as evidence what was narrated by Imam Muslim in his Sahih on the authority of Abu Sa`id al-Khudri - may God be pleased with him -: (Bilal came with a brown date, so the Messenger of God, peace and blessings of God be upon him, said: Where is this from us? So he said: From where did Bilal come from it?  The Prophet, may God’s prayers and peace be upon him, was given the food, so the Messenger of God said at that: Or in the interest of usury, do not do so, but if you want to buy it, then you want to buy it.  The second opinion: The Hanafis regard the contract in which interest is one of the corrupt contracts, and the corrupt sale entails the possession of the return in possession, and it is obligatory to return it if the return is outstanding, or to return its value, or something similar.  The Hanafis differentiate in the jurisprudence of transactions between the false and the corrupt.  False is what it does not have any effect on the transaction, but if the annulment is required in the Sharia, then it is considered corrupt, and if all the effects arise, then it is considered valid.
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