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The history of the inception of the Internet

The history of the inception of the Internet

 


The genesis of the Internet:




 Unlike other technologies that have been developed, there is no single inventor of the Internet, but rather it has evolved over time, as the Internet began to emerge as a weapon in the hands of the United States in the Cold War, and for several years it was used by scientists and researchers in order to communicate with each other.






 The stages of the development of the Internet:




 The stages he went through can be identified through the following:





 * In 1969, a student at the University of California, Charley Kline, sent the first simple transmission to a computer at the Stanford Research Institute, which is about 483 km away, and this was considered the first connection in the history of the Internet.  ARPANET is the herald of the emergence of the Internet, as it was developed by the US Department of Defense in cooperation with many universities, and researchers at universities and workers in the Ministry of Defense were allowed to share information with their colleagues in other cities through it, by logging in from the University of California to the University of  stanford,






 * By 1971 there were approximately 30 universities participating in ARPANET.  The first appearance of the new computer network was in 1972 at the International Conference on Computer Communications, where e-mail was announced.  In the late 1970s Dr. Vinton invented a common language to communicate between computers connected through the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) was used to allow users to access files on a remote computer.  By 1986, the National Science Foundation (NSFNET) had become a hub for supercomputers connected to the Internet at a speed of 56000 bits per second.






 The number of hosts on the Internet exceeded nearly 20,000 people by 1987.  The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has developed the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which is still used in web pages today.  Invention of the World Wide Web The World Wide Web was invented in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, a scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.






 By 1991, the World Wide Web was presented to the public, and in 1992, audio and video were distributed for the first time over the Internet, and in 1993, 600 websites were connected to the Internet, and by 1998, the Google search engine was created, which changed the way users interact with the Internet.







 Who invented the internet?







 It is difficult to attribute credit to the invention of the Internet to only one person, as it is the result of the efforts of dozens of programmers, engineers, and scientists who are pioneers in their fields, who have developed many technologies and characteristics, and unified their research together to create the Internet. However, the greatest credit for the invention of the early Internet goes to both  Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn, as they shared in 1973 their vision of inventing what is known as the decentralized Internet, which stemmed from their belief that information should be free and available to all.





 * Vint Cerf and Robert Kahn believed that adopting cellular systems as a model for building and segmenting the Internet would result in international taxes and data transfer fees;  So that each country has its own local Internet, and it can come to the need for huge switches to enable communication between computers in different countries, which prompted them to implement their idea and invent what is known as the Transfer Control Protocol (TCP), which achieved a qualitative leap in the world of communication.






 * Vint and Robert published their invention in December 1974 without claiming a patent or intellectual property rights;  This was due to their desire to accept and use it without any hindrances, and this was in cooperation with Eugene Dellal and Carl Sunshine, and by 1978 AD, Danny Cohen, David Reed, and John Josh contributed to separating the TCP into two protocols, namely;  Transport Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP), thanks to which, by 1993 AD, the Internet had already become a global network.








 * Innovators who contributed to the invention of the Internet There are many innovators who paved the way for the invention of the Internet, its use on the ground, and its development, and the most prominent of them are: Donald Davis: The British scientist Donald Davis was developing a new technology similar to the distributed network at the National Physical Laboratory in Middlesex,  This was at the same time that the two scientists, Lawrence and Leonard, were working on the development of the distributed network.  Paul Baran: Engineer Paul Baran proposed the idea of ​​creating a distributed network.  It is an open communication network that does not have a central command point, so that the communication points operate independently, and are not affected if one of them fails.








 Lawrence Roberts: Lawrence Roberts, who held the position of chief scientist at ARPA, was impressed by Paul Baran's idea. He was quick to work with the team on developing the distributed network. He also created the first two separate computers communicating together in 1965 AD, and developed the first network to exchange  firmness;  During the experiment, Lawrence connected the phone line with a modem that was paired with voice, transmitting digital data in packets.







 * Leonard Kleinrock: The American scientist Leonard made many achievements, including the following: He worked alongside the scientist Lawrence Roberts in order to build the distributed network.  Demonstrate the possibility of connecting a computer network to another computer network.  The first message over the Internet was sent from the University of California to Stanford University, in 1969, and the message contained only two letters (lo), which are the letters that begin with the word “login”, which is the word that Leonard tried to type before the system crashes, and in  The second attempt was successful, and more messages began to be exchanged between the two sites.






 * Paul Mokapeters and John Postel: Inventors Paul and John invented the Domain Name System (DNS) in 1984 AD, which is considered as the Internet's telephone directory, and the first domain name on the Internet was launched (symbolics.com) on March 15, 1985 AD by  Computer company in Massachusetts.







 * Tim Berners-Lee: Tim made many achievements, including the following: He established many principles that are still used today such as;  Web browsers, (URL), and (HTTP).  He developed the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) in the 1990s, and that was during his research at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), and this research played an important role in how you browse and view the Internet today.






 He developed the World Wide Web, which is considered by many to be synonymous with the word Internet, and this network contributed to the widespread popularity of the Internet, and it consists of a series of websites and pages that link to links. This network became available to all users on August 23, 1991.







 * Mark Andreessen and Eric Pina: The two scientists invented the first widely used web browser, the Mosaic browser. The browser was launched by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications on April 22, 1993 AD. Mosaic is an inspiration for the browsers that are used today, such as: Google Chrome and Internet Explorer.  , and others.






 Important stages in the world of the Internet:





 Over the past years, the Internet has developed in an unprecedented way, as many important discoveries have played a role in making the Internet a global network, and the most prominent of these discoveries are the following:







 Email creation: The programmer Ray Tomlinson launched the email service in 1971 AD, which is considered the first system for sending messages between users over a communication network. Commercial Network: A commercial version of the ARPANET was launched and was known as Telenet;  1974 AD, and it was considered the first Internet service provider Ethernet service: Engineer Robert Metcalfe developed the idea of ​​the Ethernet service in 1973 AD Modem: Scientists Dennis Hayes and Dale Hetherington introduced the first modem in 1977 AD, and it was called the modem (80-103A),






 * The modem is also the best choice for users to connect to the Internet.  User Data Protocol (UDP): User Data Protocol (UDP) became part of the ARPANET on January 1, 1983.  Commercial contact with the Internet service provider: The first Internet service provider was launched in the United States of America, and it was called the World, and that was in 1989 AD.  The Java Programming Language: James Gosling, in cooperation with other programmers, developed the Java language in 1995 AD, and the Java language is still a language used so far in building applications and computer programs.







 * JavaScript Language: In 1995, programmer Brendan Eich launched the JavaScript language;  It is a client-side interpreted scripting language that gives a web designer the ability to insert code into their web page.  Publishing of the first website: The first website (info.cern.ch) was published on August 6, 1991.








 * Communication protocols (TCP/IP) Internet communication protocols (TCP/IP) have provided an opportunity to create an efficient and large system of interconnected networks, although many protocols have been established before;  Like File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Network Control Protocol (NCP), however, communication protocols (TCP/IP) formed the basis for building the Internet.









 * The Transport Control Protocol (TCP) receives messages sent from the source device and delivers them to the receiving device unchanged, and its mechanism of action involves fragmenting this data into several packets and redistributing them;  To move from one router to another over the Internet, and in front of the large number of available devices comes the role of the Internet Protocol (IP), which determines the location of data packets and directs them towards their address, and when they reach the receiving device, the TCP reassembles the packets to the form in which they were  .






 Internet:





 The word Internet is derived from the English word (interconnected), which means interconnected, and the name of the Internet was used for the first time by the scientist Vint Cerf.  and academia, in its development, as the Internet today constitutes a widespread infrastructure for global information.





 The invention of the telegraph, the telephone, and the radio paved the way for the invention of the Internet, which revolutionized the world of computers and communications in an unprecedented way, and what increased the importance of the Internet is that it is innovative mechanisms for the dissemination and transmission of information worldwide, and the opportunity for cooperation and interaction between individuals and their computers without being restricted by the geographical dimension  The Internet is one of the most successful examples of the benefits of continuous investment, commitment to research, and the development of information infrastructure.

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