القائمة الرئيسية


!How is light formed

the light

 Light is a form of energy around us, traveling at a high speed of 280,000 km/sec, meaning that it travels 9,000 billion km per year, and this is what is known as a light year.  Newton was the first to research the components of light and what it is.  Where he assumed that the light is a torrent of fine material particles, and he was able to explain the light phenomena that were known at that time, then came the scientist Huygen who said that the light is a ripple similar to those that arise on the surface of the water when we throw a stone in it.

Definition of Photons:

Photons are elementary bodies that carry the electromagnetic force, and photons have the property of wave and particle duality, and a single photon can be refracted by lenses, and it can behave as a particle to give specific results when measuring and determining its position, and it is characterized by being without mass in the state of rest, and without electrical charge, in addition to being  It moves in the void.

The duality of light:

The waves consist of crests and troughs, and if two waves meet so that the crest coincides with the crest, and the trough coincides with the trough, we get a larger wave with higher peaks and deeper bottoms, and this is called constructive interference according to the phenomenon of light diffraction, but if the two waves meet so that the first crest meets with  The second bottom, then the two waves will vanish, and this is called destructive interference, and darkness arises from that.

 These wave conditions apply to light completely, which calls into question Newton's theory, and if we reject Newton's theory completely, we assume that light has a purely wave nature, and this assumption has not been proven by experiments on the ground either, and experiments have shown that when light collides with the surface of a photovoltaic cell, it is generated by that collision  Electrical energy resulting from the energy of the movement of photons, meaning that light is emitted in the form of small packets called photons, and they can be studied as fine particles or waves, and this property is called particle-wave duality

Light characteristics:

Engineering characteristics:

 As if the light travels in straight lines, that is, it spreads in space in a straight manner, with vertical beams, and the direction of the light’s path is called: the light ray, which is known as Fermat’s principle: that is, the light takes the shortest path to reach, and the shortest path to reach is the straight line, and from  Geometric properties also: reflection, refraction, and dispersion.

Wave characteristics:

such as interference, diffraction, polarization, and refraction.  Ray independence:

And it appears when the light rays intersect, so that one does not affect the other, but rather each of them continues to move in its direction without being affected by the other.

!How is light formed

 It is known that all objects consist of atoms surrounded by electrons, and this is the main reason for the formation of light, with electrons distributed around the atom in a specific order called orbits, where each orbit has a certain energy that must be present in the electron in order to be able to stay in it, so that when the energy increases  The electron moves from one orbit to a higher orbit around the atom, and when the electron loses energy, it drops to a lower orbit around the atom, and thus light is formed when the atom absorbs energy in one way or another, causing the electrons to rise to higher orbits, which makes the atom in a state of instability that forces the electrons to return to the lower orbits  To ensure the stability of the atom, but according to the law of conservation of energy, energy is neither destroyed nor created, but is transformed from one form to another, so electrons must give up energy in order to be able to return, and that energy is called photons, which is light.

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