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What are the types of bees and their species,

 What are the types of bees and their species,

What are the types of bees and their species,

Bee species:

  * Bees belong (in English: bees) to the kingdom of animals, the division of arthropods, division of hexapods, class of insects, and order of hymenoptera, and there are more than twenty thousand species of bees in the world, but the type that produces honey accounts for less than 4%  Of that, there are fewer than 800 species, the most famous of which is the common honey bee scientifically known as (Apis mellifera), and while many bees live in isolation or alone, the percentage of species that live in groups is less than 8% of the total number of bees.  In the world, just as less than 3% of them live in cells,

  And bees are classified into seven families, which are:

  * The Apidae family: It is the largest of the bee species, and includes both social and solitary bee types, and one of the most famous varieties of this family is;  Honeybees, bumblebees, carpenter bees, carpenters, and orchid bees.

  * The rodent bee family: (Megachilidae), it is a family of solitary bees, and it is distinguished by that it carries pollen grains on the lower side of the abdomen, and not on the hind legs as is the case with the rest of the bees.  Leaf biting bees, and constructive bees.

  Halictidae: Halictidae build their cells on the ground, also known as sweat bees, because some of the species that belong to it are attracted to the salts present in the human race, and this family includes bee species that have changed their way of life between social and solitary living  Depending on the environment in which you are located.

  * Andrenidae family: They are solitary bees that build their cells on the ground, and most members of this family belong to the miner bees of the genus Andrena.

  * Colletidae, colitidae are also known as cellophane bees, or polyester bees (plasterer bees);  This is because he secretes a biological plastic material that he uses to make his home and protect it from water, and this species includes bees (Hylaeus), which are distinguished by the absence of hair on their bodies, in addition to the fact that they carry pollen grains in their stomach.

  * Melittidae family: It is a solitary bee that builds its cells on the ground, and this family is usually distinguished by its small or medium size, and black color, and includes several genera (Hesperapis), whose members can be distinguished by their green eyes and flat abdomen.

  * Bee family (Stenotritidae): It is the smallest of bee species, and it only lives in Australia. It is a solitary bee that builds its home on the ground.  Types of honey bees Honey bees live within large kingdoms, as one hive in the Kingdom contains approximately 60,000 bees, each of which performs a specific function.

  The honey bee kingdom consists of three types of adult bees: female workers, males, and queen.


  * Female workers (in English: Workers) are the smallest and most numerous members of the bee colony, which are females that are unable to mate and reproduce in normal conditions, but in cases where the queen is not present, she may lay unfertilized eggs that produce males only, and the average age is  Women workers during the summer season are about six weeks, while the workers who appear in the fall live a longer period of up to six months, as they contribute to maintaining the hives during the winter, in addition to raising the new generation during the spring season before their death,

  The following are some of the most important tasks that female workers perform:

  The secretion of wax used in the cell, and its formation to build the waxy combs.  Bring and collect nectar and pollen from flowers for the hive, and convert nectar into honey.  Providing the needs of the queen and the larvae, and the secretion of royal food to feed the queen and young larvae.  Clean the hive from dead bees.  Defending the cell and protecting it from intruders.  Maintaining optimum conditions for the hive, by ventilating and cooling it, or by heating it.

  the Queen :

  * The kingdom of bees contains one queen (in English: Queen), which is a female that resulted from a fertilized egg, similar to that of a worker, but the difference between them lies in the type of food that each of them gets in the larva stage, as it receives the larvae that will develop into a little worker  Of the royal food, and they feed mainly on a mixture of honey and pollen, while the larvae that will develop to become a queen feed on a large amount of royal food, and it is worth noting that the queen is sexually mature, so she can mate, laying fertilized eggs and another unfertilized, and it may arrive  The number of eggs produced by the queen during her lifetime, which may reach five years, reaches more than one million eggs.

  * The queen is distinguished from male and female workers in that it is longer, and has wings that reach two-thirds of the abdomen, unlike the wings of the rest of the cell members that reach the tip of the abdomen, and the queen differs from the female workers in that the stinging needle is curved and more long, and her chest is slightly larger, and it is not  She has baskets for collecting pollen grains, and she cannot produce wax, and the queen performs, in addition to laying eggs, another task which is the secretion of pheromones that contribute to determining the identity of the kingdom, and among the most important of these pheromones is the royal substance (in English: Queen substance) produced by the glands of the lower jaw, in order to attract male bees  For mating, and forbidding workers from raising more queens.


  * Male bees produce (in English: Drone) from unfertilized eggs, and its main function is to fertilize the virgin queen, and the male is distinguished by its large head compared to the female workers and the queen, and its large compound eyes that surround almost the entire head, in order to be able to monitor the queen during flight, and no  Male bees have a stinging needle, no baskets for collecting pollen, and no glands to produce wax, and they depend on female workers for their food, and because they consume three times the food that workers consume.  The males are expelled from the hive with the onset of the cold weather in the autumn, along with the lack of food resources of nectar and pollen, yet they may be allowed to remain in the cell if there is no queen in it.  His mission.

  The different origins of honey bees:

  * There are many types and strains of honey bees that differ among themselves due to several factors, including: the area in which they live, their genetic makeup, their origin, and so on, and the most famous of them are the following:

  - Italian bees: they are distinguished by their light colors, that they are less defensive of the hive, and less vulnerable to disease compared to other types of bees, and the Italian bees produce excellent quality honey, but one of its main disadvantages is that it may consume the honey in the hive, and it resorts to taking honey from  Neighboring weak cells, which may cause infectious diseases to spread among the beehives rapidly.

  German bees: They are dark colored bees, and they can live in areas with cold climates, and they are very protective of their hives, and they are susceptible to many diseases.

  Crinole bees: Central Europe is the home of the original Crinoli bees, and this type of bee is characterized by its great ability to build wax combs, and is characterized by being very obedient and smooth, and less inclined to take honey from other cells, in addition to that it grows rapidly in the spring, which  It means increasing its numbers, and the possibility of benefiting from the flowers that bloom at the beginning of this season.

  - Caucasian bees: their original home is located in the Ural Mountains in eastern Europe, and Caucasian bees are distinguished by their long tongue that enables them to collect nectar from flowers that other types of bees cannot reach, and from its shortcomings the slow growth process, which prevents it from producing honey crops in large quantities.  This type tends to use the gum (propolis) extensively to block cell fissures, which makes it difficult to deal with.

  Backfast bees: They are characterized by their resistance to cold moist climates, their ability to produce good crops of honey, and they are clean, which reduces the spread of diseases. Backfast bees are moderately defensive, but one of their disadvantages is that they do not fully benefit from the early flow of nectar.

  - The Russian bee: The Far East region of Russia is its original home, and this type of bee is distinguished by its cleanliness, and its period of activity changes according to the abundant times of nectar and pollen in its environment, and the performance of the Russian bee is better in the absence of other types of bees.

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