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 The way the electric motor works is simple,

The way the electric motor works is simple,



Electric stirrer:




 * The electric motor is found in many devices and machines, as it can be found in a number of home appliances, such as: mixer, microwave oven, washing machine, electric dryer, vacuum cleaner, shaver, and CD player (in English: CD player), and many of them  In a computer distributed over a number of its equipment, such as a hard disk drive (in English: a hard disk drive) that contains two or three motors, in addition to ventilation fans,



 * There is also an electric motor in some children's electric toys, including cars that can be controlled remotely, and it is worth noting that the electric train also depends on the electric motor.




 How to build a simple electric motor:




 * It is possible to build a simple electric motor that works with the same mechanism as an ordinary electric motor and relies on the same principles, and it is also easy to find the tools that will be used in its manufacture.  The tools used The tools required for the manufacture of a simple electric motor are the following:



 Pencils (can be replaced by a barrel).  Wire.  Adhesive.  Needle sewing.  Dry battery.  magnet.  Steps When you have all the tools necessary to make a simple electric motor, follow the following steps:




 - arrangement of pencils;  So that two horizontal pens are placed on top of the other two horizontal pens, after that the adhesive is used to attach them all together.  Wrap a wire on the center of the particle of the pens or on the cylindrical shape, so that it starts from the middle, and wind the wire fifteen turns towards one end of the particle, and another fifteen turns (from the middle as well) towards the other end, so a coil of thirty turns is formed in the center of the body.



 - Pulling the pencil particle or the cylindrical piece from the center of the coil that was formed around it, resulting in an empty cylindrical file from the center area.  There will be left of the wire used in forming the coil, two ends that are not fixed on both sides of the coil, so that each of them will be fixed to the side on which it is located by wrapping it around it, and it is wrapped three to four times around each side.  After this is done, the end of the remaining wire is pulled on each side, forming a straight line that extends from the side of the coil away from it.



 - Install the battery on a smooth surface using the adhesive tape.  Cut both ends of the coil wire;  To remove the insulation layer from them.  Insert each end of the coil wire into the sewing needle hole.  Attach the two needle heads (the pointed ends) to the battery terminals with the adhesive.  Bringing the magnet closer to the coil or fixing it below it, and then starting to rotate the coil, and thus the coil must start rotating.  If the coil is not still spinning, you can try rotating it in the opposite direction.



 The mechanism of action of the electric motor:




 * The electric motor depends in its mechanism of action on the magnetic field, which is formed around the wire when an electric current passes through it, and the resulting movement in the motor is caused by the characteristics of attraction and repulsion between the poles of the magnet.  The electric motor mainly contains two main components, namely: the stator (in English: the stator), which consists of a permanent magnet or a number thereof, and the rotor (in English: the rotor), which consists of a coil fixed on an axis of rotation (in English: Axle),




 * It also contains an electric exchanger (in English: Commutator) that changes the direction of electric current movement when the rotor rotates half a turn, and it is connected to the electric exchanger with what is known as brushes (in English: Brushes) to facilitate the transfer of current to it through the power source.  In general, the rotor consists of an electromagnetic coil in a shape similar to the letter (U) in English, and the two ends of this coil are connected to the electric exchanger to which the electric current is transferred.



 * The exchanger is connected to brushes that carry the current to it, and these brushes are usually made of pieces of carbon or slender longitudinal pieces of metal, and the poles of the electric power source are connected to the two brushes on the side of the exchanger.  The coil is surrounded by the stator, which consists of a permanent magnet in the simplest case, so that each pole is facing the other on both sides of the coil.  Brush up to one end of the exchange,




 * Then the current travels from it to the end of the coil connected to it, through the entire coil, ending at the other end of the exchanger, then it continues through the other brush, then the wire, until it reaches the other pole from the source.  When the current passes through the coil, a magnetic field arises around it, so it is affected by the force of attraction on the one hand, and the force of repulsion on the other side, caused by the permanent magnet surrounding the coil, and this will lead to the movement of the coil in a rotational motion.




 * When the coil becomes perpendicular to the permanent magnet, the direction of the current passing through the coil will change, and thus the poles of the magnetic field will change, which will cause the rotation to reverse, but here comes the role of the electric exchanger, which also reflects the current again to return in the direction it was in even after its arrival  Half a turn so that it is perpendicular to the permanent magnet. If the exchanger was not present, the motor would continue to rotate at times with the clock, and at other times counterclockwise, which would nullify the purpose of its use.




 The source is hesitant current:




 * In the event that the source supplies the circuit with alternating current (in English: AC), then the aforementioned motor will not work as required, and there are two ways to solve this problem: The first is by removing the electrical exchanger;  As the alternating current changes its direction on its own, it does not need an exchanger, and the second method is by replacing the permanent magnet and using another electromagnetic (coil), and connecting its two ends to the source, and the electric motor in this case is called the universal electric motor (in English: Universal motor),




 * It can be operated with both types of currents.  When making this adjustment, and when the coil in the rotor becomes perpendicular to the other winding (the electromagnetic magnet), both currents on the two coils will change their direction together - because the current is alternating - and thus the force will remain in the same direction, and the electric exchanger is ignored in this case.
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