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History of the discovery of oil

History of the discovery of oil


 petroleum:




 Petroleum, petroleum, or crude oil;  It is a mixture of hydrocarbons, consisting of about 13% hydrogen and 85% carbon, and it also contains other elements such as nitrogen about 0.5%, oxygen 1%, and sulfur 0.5%, in addition to metals, such as nickel, iron, and copper with a percentage of less than 0.1  %, and the oil may come in black, or dark brown, and sometimes yellow, or green, due to the different components.





 Petroleum discovery:




 * The history of the discovery of petroleum goes back to the ancient peoples of the Middle East, where the Babylonians used it;  To protect their buildings, and to prevent water from seeping into their boats, the ancient Egyptians used it to embalm mummys and preserve bodies. As for the history of the current discovery of oil, it goes back to the middle of the nineteenth century when the first oil well was discovered in the United States of America, in the state of Pennsylvania in 1859,  Thanks to Edwin L.  Drake, who devised a method for drilling a well to extract oil.




 Oil derivatives :




 The most important oil derivatives are extracted from crude oil through different processes such as cracking distillation. These derivatives differ from each other in terms of chemical and physical properties due to the different type of crude oil and refining processes. Examples of oil derivatives are:





 * Gasoline: It is a lightweight substance, it flows easily and spreads very quickly, and it can evaporate completely within a few hours under moderate conditions. It is a highly flammable substance, and is more toxic than crude oil.





 Kerosene: It is a light substance that flows easily, spreads and evaporates quickly. Kerosene is currently used as fuel for jet engines, heating oil, and a solvent for pesticides.






 * Asphalt: It is a black or brown substance similar to oil, and its viscosity ranges from a viscous liquid to a solid vitreous, and it is mainly used in lining reservoirs and channels, covering dams, paving roads, and other construction and building works. It is also used in some industrial products.  Like the battery industry.





 benzene:




 Known as (Benzene), a chemical compound that has no color, liquid, flammable and has a mild odor, and chemical composition is (C6H6) It consists of a hexagonal ring and the six-ring is the simplest molecule in the organic aromatic compounds and is considered gasoline carcinogens.  The discoverer of benzene Benzene was discovered in 1825 AD by the English scientist (Michael Faraday), who isolated benzene from gaseous oil.





 * He is also the first to invent a (gasoline burning machine) and launched the concepts (elevator, catamaran, pole and ion).  Was Faraday from a poor family did not receive basic education, he began to teach himself when he worked in a shop for bookbinding, has spent seven years in this work from the age of 14 have read many books (such as improving the mind) Isaac Watt has everything written by Isaac dish  He also read a book (Kalam on Chemistry) by Jane Marst, and his passion for learning and knowledge was evident.





 * He also attended many lectures at the age of 20, including for the chemist (Humphrey Duffy), and also (John Tatum), and he has great achievements in (chemistry) not in the science of (electromagnetic and electrochemical fields).  Although Michael Faraday did not study mathematics in school, he is an outstanding scientist and has been classified as the greatest scientist in history. In calculating (the value of a capacitor) is a unit of voltaic charge, which is 96 volts per unit charge.





 Gasoline uses:





 In the 1920s, benzene was used as an industrial solvent to remove grease from materials.  It is used in car fuel and the world is currently trying to reduce the amount of lead compounds in the fuel.  Gasoline is used as an intermediate in the production of chemicals, and most of the derivatives produced from benzene are (styrene) and (phenol), which is used in the manufacture of adhesives.  Benzene is used in the production of rubber, dyes, detergents, medicines, crackers, insecticides and some medicines.





 The effect of gasoline on health:





 When inhaling gasoline in large quantities, it may lead to death, and if it is in small quantities, it may lead to drowsiness, dizziness in the head, increased heart rates, and heart rate.  If the body is exposed to benzene, it may damage the bone pulp, reduce the production of red blood cells, and lead to the emergence of (anemia), weakening and bleeding.  Inhalation of benzene in the air for long periods leads to the occurrence of cancer in the blood, which is a disease (leukemia).






 The world's first oil well:





 The first oil activity appeared in 1859 in Pennsylvania, where Edwin L.  Drake had the idea of ​​the first oil well in the world, by inventing a way to drill a practical oil well, as his job to connect the railways helped him reach the idea of ​​the oil well, and it was not possible to extract oil from the ground before that, as they depended on oil leakage naturally from the ground, so  This method did not produce large quantities of oil, so the idea had to be invented to extract large quantities of oil from the ground, so Drake began to explode the ground using mines.






 Working principle of an oil well:





 In applying his idea, Drake relied on a technique similar to the one used in drilling the earth in search of salt, where he noticed that iron thrust tubes can cross through the rocky layer to areas where oil is likely to be present, and thus the level of oil in the well rose, and this led to the production  Well a steady supply of oil is estimated at 1818.44 liters per 24 hours, rather than the meager output that can be collected from oil spills.






 World oil reserves:





 Oil reserves are distributed in many places around the world, with countries such as Saudi Arabia, Russia, the United States, Iran, and China on the top of the world's oil reserves. Oil is produced in 31 states in the United States, including Texas, Alaska, and California  , Louisiana, and Oklahoma most of the oil production.







 The use of oil as a source of energy Energy is an essential thing in the livelihood of individuals, and it is an important element for survival. In ancient times, energy production was limited to burning wood and coal, in order to obtain ready-to-use fuel, until technology developed, and coal was dispensed with as being  It is considered a polluting source of the environment, and it has been converted from using coal and wood to using oil as another source of energy.

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